WEEK SIX: The Three Types of Proof

READING: Wood, Chapter 6



We began class with our Working Claims Presentations, which were very well-done and fun for me to see. Not everyone was prepared to present, but a few students had their slides prepared, and they did a great job. Remember that you will get another chance to present next week if you want the experience and the bonus points! 

After the presentations, we discussed Three Categories of Proof...also known as The Three Appeals: Ethos, Pathos, and Logos.

Ethos is also know as the ethical appeal or the appeal to authority — it's persuading your audience using your own personal credibility. You can use ethos in your papers by referring to your personal experience with your topic, by quoting experts who agree with your position, by being fair to your opposition, and by writing in a professional and error-free way.

Pathos (root word PATH- as in symPATHy, emPATHy, etc.) is also known as the emotional appeal — as you might guess, it's persuading your audience by appealing to emotions. When most people think about the emotional appeal, they think about writing a tear-jerker. While sadness and grief are powerful emotions, don't forget that there are lots of other powerful emotions: fear, joy, love, nostalgia, pride, desire...just to name a few. There are a couple of good ways to use the emotional appeal in your argument: include examples or stories to bring your argument home to the reader, identify with your audience's values and core beliefs by showing that you understand where they're coming from, and use strong, connotative language.

Logos is also known as the logical appeal — it's using reasoning and evidence to persuade your audience...and is what we most often think of as argument. Logos forms the structure, or the backbone, of your essay. Your audience should be able to follow a line of reasoning through your argument, and without reasoning and evidence, you don't really have a formal argument. You have a rant! We also discussed two types of reasoning: Inductive (the Scientific Method) and Deductive (the Syllogism).



Read Wood, Chapter 7

Summary-Response Paper #2

Study for Quiz Two